Activity Theory

Activity theory is an umbrella phrase for a line of eclectic social sciences theories and research having its roots within the Soviet psychological activity theory developed by Sergei Rubinstein and Alexei Leont'ev. These scholars sought to realize human activities as complex, socially situated phenomena and to visit beyond paradigms of psychoanalysis, reflexology and behaviorism. It became one of the main psychological methods in the former USSR, being broadly used in both applied and theoretical psychology and in professional training, education, work psychology and ergonomics.

Activity theory is nothing more than a descriptive meta-theory or framework compared to a predictive theory. It considers a whole work/activity system (including organizations, teams, etc.) beyond only one actor or user. It accounts for environment, culture, history of the person, motivations, part of the artifact and difficulty of real life activity. One of the advantages of AT is always that it bridges the gap among the individual subject and the social reality it research both through the mediating activity.


Activity Theory of Aging

Based on the activity theory of aging (also known as the normal theory of aging, implicit theory of aging and lay theory of aging), there exists a positive relationship among a person's life satisfaction and level of activity, which in turn raises how positively an individual views themselves (self-concept) and enhances adjustment in later life.

Even though these two theories are not mutually unique, activity theory is usually contrasted with disengagement theory. Suggested by Cummings and Henry in 1961, disengagement theory explains social disengagement like an adaptive reply to aging where elderly people relinquish tasks while keeping a sense of self-worth. This voluntary surrender of activities is thought to enable the orderly exchange of power from older to younger generations and is helpful for both the aging society and individual.

The activity theory is among three main psychosocial theories which explain how individuals develop in later years. Another two psychosocial theories would be the disengagement theory, with which the activity comes to odds, as well as the continuity theory which changes and elaborates on the activity theory.

Routine Activity Theory

Routine activity theory is actually a sub-field of crime opportunity theory, produced by Lawrence E. Cohen and Marcus Felson, that concentrates on circumstances of crimes (e.g., a victim of attack in the park than in your secured home or you are more probably to be robbed).

Routine activity theory premise is always that crime is relatively unaffected through social causes for example inequality, poverty, unemployment. For example, after the second world war, the economy of Western nations was booming and the Welfare states had been expanding. Throughout that time, crime rose significantly. Based on Cohen and Felson, it is because the prosperity of modern society provides so many options for crime to take place: there is a lot more to steal.

Routine activity theory is controversial between sociologists who think in the social causes of crime. But numerous types of crime are extremely well described by routine activity theory such as related to peer-to-peer file sharing, copyright infringement, corporate crime and employee theft.