# History of Number System

Today's numbers also referred to as Hindu-Arabic numbers, are a mixture of just 10 digits or symbols: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0. These numbers were introduced in Europe in the XII century through Leonardo Pisano (aka Fibonacci), an Italian mathematician. L. Pisano had been educated in North Africa, where he learned and afterwards carried to Italy the now well-known Hindu-Arabic numerals.

Hindu numeral system is actually a pure place-value system, which is why you require a zero. Just the Hindus, within the context of Indo-European civilizations, have regularly used a zero. The Arabs, however, performed an essential part within the dissemination of this numeral system.

## History of Numbers

However, the initial Western usage of the digits, with no zero, was reported within the Vth century by Beothius, a Roman author. Beothius describes, in one of his geometry books, the way to operate the abacus utilizing marked small cones rather than pebbles. Those cones, upon all of which was drawn the symbol of one of the nine Hindu-Arabic digits, were known as apices. Therefore, the early representations of digits in Europe were referred to as apices.

Each apex obtained also an individual name: Igin for 1, Andras for 2, Ormis for 3, Arbas for 4, Quisnas (or Quimas) for 5 , Calctis (or Caltis) for 6, Tenis (or Zenis) for 7, Temenisa for 8 and Scelentis (or Celentis) for 9. The etymology of those names stays unclear, though a few of them were clearly Arab numbers. The Hindu-Arabic-like figures reported through Beothius were reproduced nearly everywhere with the best fantasy.

## Egyptian Number System History

The system of Egyptian numerals was employed in Ancient Egypt in around 3,000 BC until the earlier first millennium AD. It had been a system of numeration according to the scale of ten, usually rounded off to the greater power, written in hieroglyphs, however they had no concept of a place-valued system for example the decimal system is. The hieratic type of numerals stressed a perfect series notation, ciphered one to one to the Egyptian alphabet. The Ancient Egyptian system utilized bases of ten.

As accounting and administrative texts had been written on ostraca or papyrus, instead of being carved into hard stone (as were hieroglyphic texts), the huge majority of texts utilizing the Egyptian numeral system use the hieratic script. Instances of numerals composed in hieratic could be found as far back as the Early on Dynastic Period. The Old Kingdom Abusir Papyri are a really important corpus of texts that make use of hieratic numerals.

## Mayan number system history

Together with their calendars, the Haab, the Tzolk'in and the Long Count, the Mayans also developed their own math system. They used a number of bars and dots to signify numbers. A single dot equaled a single unit, while one bar equaled 5 units. A shell symbol signified zero. In a system related to the one we utilize now, the Mayans employed place values to designate big numbers. However, the similarities among math systems finish there.

Numbers held great importance in the Mayan culture. For instance, the number 20 implies the number of digits someone has -- 10 toes and 10 fingers. The number 13 means major joints in our body where it is believed illness and disease enter and attack: one neck, two elbows, two shoulders, two hips, two wrists, two ankles and two knees. The number 13 also symbolized the levels of heaven in which sacred lords ruled the world.

## Chinese Number System History

In 1899 an important discovery was produced at the archaeological site in the village of Xiao dun within the An-yang district of Henan province. 1000s of bones and tortoise shells had been discovered there which had been written with ancient Chinese figures.

The site had been the capital from the kings of the Late Shang dynasty (this Late Shang is also known as the Yin) from the fourteenth century BC. The final twelve of the Shang kings ruled here till about 1045 BC and the bones and tortoise shells discovered there had been utilized as part of religious ceremonies. Questions were written on one side of a tortoise shell, another side of the shell was then subjected for the heat of a fire and the cracks which appeared were interpreted as the answers for the questions originating from ancient ancestors.

The significance of these finds, as far as studying about the ancient Chinese number system, was that most of the inscriptions included numerical information about men lost in fight, prisoners taken in battle, the number of animals killed on hunts, the number of sacrifices made, the number of months or days, etc. The number system which was employed to express this numerical information was depending on the decimal system and was both multiplicative and additive in nature. Here is a selection of the symbols that were employed.