Today's numbers also referred to as Hindu-Arabic numbers, are a mixture of just 10 digits or symbols: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0. These numbers were introduced in Europe in the XII century through Leonardo Pisano (aka Fibonacci), an Italian mathematician. L. Pisano had been educated in North Africa, where he learned and afterwards carried to Italy the now well-known Hindu-Arabic numerals.
Hindu numeral system is actually a pure place-value system, which is why you require a zero. Just the Hindus, within the context of Indo-European civilizations, have regularly used a zero. The Arabs, however, performed an essential part within the dissemination of this numeral system.
History of Numbers
However, the initial Western usage of the digits, with no
zero, was reported within the Vth century by Beothius, a Roman author. Beothius
describes, in one of his geometry books, the way to operate the abacus
utilizing marked small cones rather than pebbles. Those cones, upon all of
which was drawn the symbol of one of the nine Hindu-Arabic digits, were known
as apices. Therefore, the early representations of digits in Europe were
referred to as apices.
Each apex obtained also an individual name: Igin for 1,
Andras for 2, Ormis for 3, Arbas for 4, Quisnas (or Quimas) for 5 , Calctis (or
Caltis) for 6, Tenis (or Zenis) for 7, Temenisa for 8 and Scelentis (or
Celentis) for 9. The etymology of those names stays unclear, though a few of
them were clearly Arab numbers. The Hindu-Arabic-like figures reported through
Beothius were reproduced nearly everywhere with the best fantasy.
Number System History
The system of Egyptian numerals was employed in Ancient
Egypt in around 3,000 BC until the earlier first millennium AD. It had been a
system of numeration according to the scale of ten, usually rounded off to the
greater power, written in hieroglyphs, however they had no concept of a
place-valued system for example the decimal system is. The hieratic type of
numerals stressed a perfect series notation, ciphered one to one to the Egyptian
alphabet. The Ancient Egyptian system utilized bases of ten.
As accounting and administrative texts had been written on
ostraca or papyrus, instead of being carved into hard stone (as were
hieroglyphic texts), the huge majority of texts utilizing the Egyptian numeral
system use the hieratic script. Instances of numerals composed in hieratic
could be found as far back as the Early on Dynastic Period. The Old Kingdom
Abusir Papyri are a really important corpus of texts that make use of hieratic
number system history
Together with their calendars, the Haab, the Tzolk'in and
the Long Count, the Mayans also developed their own math system. They used a
number of bars and dots to signify numbers. A single dot equaled a single unit,
while one bar equaled 5 units. A shell symbol signified zero. In a system
related to the one we utilize now, the Mayans employed place values to
designate big numbers. However, the similarities among math systems finish
Numbers held great importance in the Mayan culture. For
instance, the number 20 implies the number of digits someone has -- 10 toes and
10 fingers. The number 13 means major joints in our body where it is believed
illness and disease enter and attack: one neck, two elbows, two shoulders, two
hips, two wrists, two ankles and two knees. The number 13 also symbolized the
levels of heaven in which sacred lords ruled the world.
Number System History
In 1899 an important discovery was produced at the
archaeological site in the village of Xiao dun within the An-yang district of
Henan province. 1000s of bones and tortoise shells had been discovered there
which had been written with ancient Chinese figures.
The site had been the capital from the kings of the Late
Shang dynasty (this Late Shang is also known as the Yin) from the fourteenth
century BC. The final twelve of the Shang kings ruled here till about 1045 BC
and the bones and tortoise shells discovered there had been utilized as part of
religious ceremonies. Questions were written on one side of a tortoise shell,
another side of the shell was then subjected for the heat of a fire and the
cracks which appeared were interpreted as the answers for the questions
originating from ancient ancestors.
The significance of these finds, as far as
studying about the ancient Chinese number system, was that most of the
inscriptions included numerical information about men lost in fight, prisoners
taken in battle, the number of animals killed on hunts, the number of
sacrifices made, the number of months or days, etc. The number system which was
employed to express this numerical information was depending on the decimal
system and was both multiplicative and additive in nature. Here is a selection of the symbols that were employed.