5 Is in Microbiology

Microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are too small to be visible with the naked human eye. This study is all about the examination of tiny organisms like cells, DNA cells, an internal study of the human cell, I.e. proteins and nucleic acids. This study also combines the study and behavior of bacteria, bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa, and algae, collectively known as 'microbes'. These microbes are in a vast category which helps in making some lifesaving drugs for cancer, diabetes, and HIV, manufacturing of the biofuels, cleaning and destroying the pollution making organisms. These microorganisms play a very important role in the nutrient cycle, climatic changes, biodegradation, food spoilage, control of diseases etc.

The people who do this study are called as the Microbiologist. With a lot of researchers and discoveries in this modern and growing society, Microbiologist like Jenner and his vaccine against smallpox, Fleming and the discovery of penicillin, Marshall and the identification of the link between Helicobacter pylori infection and stomach ulcers, and zur Hausen, who identified the link between papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

Microbiology is famous for its main 5 I's, namely
  • Inoculation
  • Incubation
  • Isolation
  • Inspection
  • Identification



Inoculation is the process of introducing a vaccine which is antigenic in nature in the human body to indulge the human immune system against the pathogens which have intruded. It is nothing but introducing healthy micro organisms forcefully in a body. There are plenty of ways for the vaccination.   A plastic straw and wood applicator stick serve as a simple, inexpensive, and disposable inoculation unit for fungal studies. The bacteria from a drop in heat sterilized loop are spread on the surface of agar.


Incubation is a space where the bacteria and tissue cultures are grown with proper circumstances for them to develop. These processes usually take place in laboratories. Mean while they study the behavior of those bacteria's. incubator is the special device used to carry this incubation process. The incubator maintains the optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside.


This process of isolating is defined to be the spatial separation of two or more populations of the pathogens. The process of screening of a pure bacterial cultural by separating one type from the mixture. There are 4 main methods of isolation

  • Isolation by streak plate technique
  • Micro manipulator method
  • Enrichment culture method
  • Serial dilution method
By using these methods, we can isolate the specific bacteria required for examination. It has been well studied in both plants and animals.



In this inspection method, After the isolation of the defective bacteria is done. Now they start to inspect and observe it. The microbiologist starts to study its behavior. Later the description is done. Microbiological laboratories are being provided with very limited guidance from these pharmaceutical quality control labs for the guidance of inspection. Cloning is done with those bacteria’s. A well-experienced team of microbiologists is must in this field.



The microbiologist or the identifier is aiming clearly to identify a defective micro-organism very accurately in the shortest period of time but when a pathogen is needed to be identified, He is often in a lot of pressure to give a quick report. Finding the correct defective pathogen is where all the microbiology lies and after this identification is done, there is a different set of procedure to cure that of a human body.